1、实证表述 Positive Statements
Positive statements are objective statements that can be tested or rejected by referring to the available evidence.positive statements are claims that attempt to describe the world as it is.Positive economics deals with objective explanation and the testing and rejection of theories.
A rise in consumer incomes will lead to a rise in the demand for new cars.
A fall in the exchange rate will lead to an increase in exports overseas.
More competition in markets can lead to lower prices for consumers.
If the government raises the tax on beer, this will lead to a fall in profits of the brewers.
A reduction in income tax will improve the incentives of the unemployed to search for work.
A rise in average temperatures will increase the demand for chicken.
Poverty in the UK has increased because of the fast growth of executive pay.
2、规范表述 Normative Statements
Normative statements express an opinion about what ought to be. They are subjective statements rather than objective statements – i.e. they carry value judgments.
The level of duty on petrol is too unfair and unfairly penalizes motorists.
The London congestion charge for drivers of petrol-guzzling cars should increase to ￡25 - three times the current charge.
The government should increase the national minimum wage to ￡6 per hour in order to reduce relative poverty.
The government is right to introduce a ban on smoking in public places.
The retirement age should be raised to 75 to combat the effects of our ageing population.
The government ought to provide financial subsidies to companies manufacturing and developing wind farm technology.
What must be true of a positive statement?
A It is one that can be shown to be correct or incorrect.
B It is one that deals with positive changes in economic well being.
C It is one that is true by definition.
D It is one with which everyone is in agreement.
首先从定义来看，positive statements are claims that attempt to describe the world as it is.实证表述是企图描述世界是什么的观点，换言之是对事实的一种客观描述。既然是事实，我们就可以判断它的对错，与选项A相符。这里容易勿选成D，要注意的是，三人成虎，并非所有人都同意的就一定正确，可能由于人类认识的发展局限性而造成所有人都错误的结果。而选项C中，定义表现的是所下定义的人的思想认识，也就是我们说的涉及个人的value judgement，因此不能判断为positive statement。